[30] However, a study in 1995 detected that there have been notable differences in morphology among each herds within the park, showing different degrees of hybridization. Articles, timelines & resources for teachers, students & public. Wood Buffalo National Park is in the northern prairie region of Canada. They were drawn by the fur trade, not realizing the future that lay within the sticky black sand and pools of bitumen documented in Pond’s Journals. 15BUR VI.31-34 - Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1990 14COM IX - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1989 13COM VIII.16 - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1989 13BUR IVB.12 - State of conservation of other natural properties: 1985 09COM XIIIC - SOC: Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada) 1983 Report of the 7th Session of the Committee The designation helps preserve nighttime ecology for the park's large populations of bats, night hawks and owls, as well as providing opportunities for visitors to experience the northern lights.[10]. With longstanding concerns about the deterioration of the park, the Mikisew Cree First Nation formally petitioned the UN body in 2014 to have the site listed as … Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park of Canada at 44,807 km2 (17,300 sq mi). [12] Parks officials have since that time attempted to undo this damage with successive culls of diseased animals. Buffalo National Park was created near the town of Wainwright in east central Alberta on June 5, 1909. It is located in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories. The Government of Canada’s response for the park area was to respect the Métis assertion of Rights. Wood Buffalo is Canada’s largest national park. 2) In 2005 the Mikisew Cree First Nation v. Canada decision was released. Agriculture was never developed in this part of Western Canada, unlike to the south; thus hunting and trapping remained the dominant industry in this region well into the twentieth century, and are still vital to many of its inhabitants. [5][6][7] It is one of two known nesting sites of whooping cranes. Research done in this area found that the local Indigenous Métis would likely have Powley-type hunting rights. American bison like open plains, savannas, and grasslands. 314-322, C. G Van Zyll de Jong , 1986, A systematic study of recent bison, with particular consideration of the wood bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads 1898), National Museum of Natural Sciences, "Protected Planet | Wood Buffalo National Park Of Canada", "Heaven Below Me – Exploring Wood Buffalo National Park from the Air", https://www.thechronicleherald.ca/news/canada/more-staff-artificial-flooding-among-plans-to-save-wood-buffalo-national-park-280877/, "Ottawa produces action plan for Wood Buffalo National Park", https://cklbradio.com/feds-have-new-plan-to-preserve-wood-buffalo-national-park/, "Wood Buffalo National Park: Statement of Significance", "RASC Designates Wood Buffalo National Park as a New Dark Sky Preserve", "Northern bison sanctuary or big ranch? This provincial park will be closed to forestry and new energy projects, but existing wells in the area can keep producing and traditional indigenous land uses are allowed. It’s the last remaining natural nesting area for the endangered whooping crane; It has unique salt plains created by an ancient seabed. [18] The mean high in January is −21.7 °C (−7.1 °F) while the mean low is −31.8 °C (−25.2 °F). [8] Wood Buffalo is located directly north of the Athabasca Oil Sands. Over 200 years ago, Peter Pond and the Voyagers of the Northwest Trading Company traveled through this area in search of furs and discovered land of wild water, lush forests and abundant wildlife. A more inclusive approach to harvesting was adopted. This is the utter madness of colonial borders. Traditional cultural use by Indigenous harvesters preserves and transmits Indigenous culture to future generations and contributes to the sharing and growth of Indigenous ecological knowledge of the land and waters in and around the park. Ranking as the world’s largest dark sky preserve, Wood Buffalo National Park is situated far north in Alberta, near the southern border of the Northwest Territories. As part of Canada's system of national parks and national historic sites, Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada is our country's largest national park and one of the largest in the world. Wood Buffalo National Park (established in 1922, 44 802 km2) was established to protect the last herd of wood bison. Known as Whooping Crane Summer Range, it is classified as a Ramsar site. Your best chance of seeing wild bison are to visit Yellowstone National Park or Wood Buffalo National Park of Canada. Wood Buffalo National Park is Canada’s largest national park. [16] Canada in response announced to fund $27.5 million to solve the problems, but UNESCO questioned and did not lift the potential delisting of the park, and the report by Canada will be reviewed by the World Heritage Committee in 2021. When Wood Buffalo was created in 1922 (north of the Peace River) the land was considered to be ‘taken up’ and all Aboriginal rights were considered extinguished. Gros Beak Lake (Wood Buffalo National Park) 1 Wood Buffalo National Park – This massive park is a UNESCO world heritage site that extends into the Northwest Territories. Specific harvesting regulations were developed that set up a management framework for Indigenous harvesting but were not based on Rights and set seasons and limits on the number of harvesters eligible. It is also the only known nesting site of whooping cranes. In 1788 fur trading posts were established at Fort Chipewyan just east of the current boundaries of the park and Fort Vermilion just to the west. The range is a complex of contiguous water bodies, primarily lakes and various wetlands, such as marshes and bogs, but also includes streams and ponds. [18], Wood Buffalo National Park contains a large variety of wildlife species, such as red fox, bison, moose, great grey owls, black bears, hawks, timber wolves, lynxes, beavers, snowy owls, marmots, bald eagles, martens, wolverines, peregrine falcons, whooping cranes, snowshoe hares, sandhill cranes, ruffed grouses, and the world's northernmost population of red-sided garter snakes, which form communal dens within the park. In 1926 the park was expanded south of the Peace River into the Peace Athabasca Delta to protect the bison transported from the south, which had migrated across the Peace River. Traditional, subsistence harvesting continues to be an important part of the ecological and cultural identity of Wood Buffalo National Park. Métis members who had been harvesting on lands that became the new park were not permitted to continue to harvest in the park. Shortly after this, Métis families were forcibly removed and excluded from activities in the Park. The park has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its bison population (the largest in North America) and the largest inland delta. As a result, Wood Buffalo National Park became the first national park in Canada to allow Indigenous traditional harvesting. American white pelicans at Rapids of the Drowned (Slave River), Jack Van Camp, 1989, A Surviving Herd of Endangered Wood Bison at Hook Lake, N.W.T. The park contains one of the world's largest fresh water deltas, the Peace-Athabasca Delta, formed by the Peace, Athabasca and Birch Rivers. It was established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free-roaming wood bison, currently estimated at more than 5,000. The land then passed into the hand of the federal government as Crown land. It was identified through the International Biological Program. The result of these Supreme Court of Canada decisions is that Parks Canada now recognizes the Treaty 8 Right to harvest in the park and the Asserted Rights of the Métis. The Cree, by contrast, are an Algonquian people and are thought to have migrated here from the east within the timeframe of recorded history. [32] Winter access is also available using winter and ice roads from Fort McMurray through Fort Chipewyan. Wood Buffalo National Park was created in 1922. It has an area of 17,300 sq mi (44,807 sq km) and was established in 1922 as a refuge to protect the few remaining bison herds in northern Canada. It is also the most ecologically complete and largest example of the Great Plains-Boreal grassland ecosystem of North America. [13] This plan was abandoned due to a negative public reaction to the announcement. Following the Klondike Gold Rush of 1897, however, the Canadian government was keen to extinguish Aboriginal title to the land, so that any mineral wealth found in the future could be exploited despite any objections from First Nations. Today bison are only wild in national parks, state parks, and reserves. Explorer Peter Pond is believed to have passed through the region in 1785, likely the first European to do so, followed by Alexander Mackenzie three years later. This area was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for the biological diversity of the Peace-Athabasca Delta, one of the world's largest freshwater deltas, as well as the population of wild bison. However, given the large area to be taken up as a National Park, eliminating all harvesting was not considered reasonable. This is captured and supported in the 2010 Wood Buffalo National Park Management Plan under Key Strategy 1, Towards a Shared Vision which is located at: http://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/nt/woodbuffalo/info/plan/plan1. Situated at the junction of three major rivers used as canoe routes for trade — the Athabasca, Peace and the Slave Rivers — the region that later became the national park was well travelled for millennia. The park itself completely surrounds several Indian reserves such as Peace Point and ʔejëre K’elnı Kuę́ (also called Hay Camp). 1) In 2003 the R. v. Powley decision recognized the Métis right to hunt in the Sault Ste Marie area. Canada purchased the Hudson's Bay Company's claim to the region in 1870. Wood Buffalo National Park is a vast, protected wilderness in northeastern Alberta and the southern Northwest Territories. And the Peace River, which had long been used by the First Nations as a trade route, also now also added to the growing network of canoe routes used in the North American fur trade. 1922 to protect the only remaining herd of wood bison. Straddling the province of Alberta and the Northwest Territories, Canada’s largest park–five times the size of Yellowstone National Park–was established in 1922 to protect the free-roaming buffalo herds. Larger in area than Switzerland,[2] it is the second-largest national park in the world. [12] Since that time, wolves, the bison's main predator, have recovered in numbers due to a reduction in control efforts (mostly poisoning), reducing the size of the herd. Real change did not happen until two key Supreme Court of Canada cases were concluded: Subsistence hunting, fishing and trapping occurs today in Wood Buffalo National Park, as it has for centuries. HSMBC Plaque Ceremony for Francois Beaulieu II (Died 1872)  - Photo of the descendants of this founding father of the NWT Metis. It is also known for its karst sinkholes in the north-eastern section of the park. Outside the park boundary though, anyone who wanted to shoot ejëre east of Highway 35 in Alberta, could. The Dane-zaa, Chipewyan, and South Slavey speak (or spoke) languages from the Northern Athabaskan family, which is also common in the regions to the north and west of the park, and call themselves the "Dene" collectively. This history is reviewed in the first half of the paper, to demonstrate how … This effectively struck down the privilege based system that had been in use since 1922. Archeological evidence shows that Indigenous people have inhabited the region that is now Wood Buffalo National Park for more than 8000 years, long before fur traders arrived in the early 1700s. In 2007, the world's largest beaver dam – about 850-metre (2,790 ft) in length – was discovered in the park using satellite imagery;[24][25][26] The dam, located at 58°16.3′N 112°15.1′W / 58.2717°N 112.2517°W / 58.2717; -112.2517,[27] about 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Fort Chipewyan, had only been sighted by satellite and fixed-wing aircraft until July 2014. Through the Aboriginal Committee for the Cooperative Management of Wood Buffalo National Park, which meets a number of times per year, and bilateral projects and relationships, Parks Canada and local Indigenous partners are working toward a better future, one that better respects and represents the importance of the local Indigenous communities to the park. At 44,802 sq.km., this is the largest NP in North America and bigger than Switzerland. Wood Buffalo National Park is a national park and the largest one in Canada.The park is located in northeastern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories.. Again families with strong ties to the new park lands who were not actively harvesting in the park when the park expanded were not considered eligible. It was established in 1922 to protect the last remaining herds of bison in northern Canada. National marine conservation areas system, Directory of federal heritage designations, http://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/nt/woodbuffalo/info/plan/plan1. Aboriginal peoples in this region have followed variations on the subarctic lifeway, based around hunting, fishing, and gathering. Only First Nation members who were harvesting on the lands established as a park were allowed to continue harvesting. Alberta's largest springs (by volume, with an estimated discharge rate of eight cubic meters per second), Neon Lake Springs, are located in the Jackfish River drainage. 24, Alberta: The world's largest dark sky preserve is a Canadian park established to preserve the country's last wood … [18] Fall tends to have cool, windy and dry days in which the first snowfall usually occurs in October. From the fur trade, the Métis people emerged as another major group in the region. Commercial flights are available to Fort Smith and Fort Chipewyan from Edmonton. WBNP was established in 1922 and was placed on the World [14], In March 2019, Kitaskino Nuwenëné Wildland Provincial Park was established on the borders of the Wood Buffalo National Park. [18] On average, summers are characterized by warm and dry days although in some years, it can have cool and wet days. Fort Smith is the nearest town. Wood Buffalo National Park is the largest national park in Canada, established in 1922 to protect the world's largest herd of free roaming Wood Bison. A thorough understanding of traditional and scientific information is critical to protecting the ecological and cultural integrity of Wood Buffalo National Park. [18] Winters are cold with temperatures that can drop below −40 °C (−40.0 °F) in January and February, the coldest months. Over the years this “privilege” was passed down to the children of the original harvesters and a registry was established at the park to track hereditary eligibility, numbers of harvesters and number of permits issued. The park headquarters is located in Fort Smith, with a smaller satellite office in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. Wood Buffalo National Park Situated on the plains in the north-central region of Canada, the park (which covers 44,807 km2) is home to North America's largest population of wild bison. 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